Three-dimensional vector electrochemical strain microscopy

N. Balke,
S. Jesse,
S. Kalnaus,
C. Daniel,
N. J. Dudney,
A. N. Morozovska,
S. V. Kalinin

I. M. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of the NAS of Ukraine, Krzhizhanovsky str., 3, Kyiv, 03142, Ukraine
Journal of Applied Physics - Melville, USA: American Institute of Physics, 2012, #112


Three-dimensional vector imaging of bias-induced displacements of surfaces of ionically conductive materials using electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM) is demonstrated for model polycrystalline LiCoO2 surface. We demonstrate that resonance enhanced imaging using band excitation detection can be performed both for out-of-plane and in-plane response components at flexural and torsional resonances of the cantilever, respectively. The image formation mechanism in vector ESM is analyzed and relationship between measured signal and grain orientation is discussed.